Business corporations are instituted for the primary purpose of economic gain. Often, as the pressure to show impressive profits in each financial quarter increases, it is the workforce who are put under undue stress. Ranging from unreasonably high productivity standards, to sub-standard and hazardous work environments, workers face several potential risks to their mental and physical health. The paradox lies in the fact that an unhealthy and burnt-out workforce is less productive than that which is relaxed and contented. But despite this, work-related stress continues to be a nagging problem facing business leaders and workers alike. With the profit motive being paramount for business leaders, their policies and decisions should be regulated by law. The common law duty of care provisions were designed toward this end, namely to hold employers liable for psychiatric illnesses suffered by employees, and for especially those illnesses arising as a result of employees being made to . . . Read More
The study of differences between individuals is as old as recorded history. These differences could pertain to aspects of personality, interests, physical traits, talents, etc. Only during the last few centuries has this field of inquiry attained a more scientific and methodological approach; for prior to it, theories were constructed based on select observations and limited understanding. In other words, the fields of inquiries of human psychology and human physiology have only been devised during the last few centuries and theories and methods employed previous to that remain deficient to that extent. It is fair to say that the Renaissance was a crucial period in the advancement of robust theories pertaining to individual differences among humans. At the outset, it is important to note that human behaviour and personality is much more difficult to understand than that of animals. And more than any other species, human behaviour is subject to interpretation and . . . Read More
Sociology as a field of inquiry has wide ranging applications in the understanding of human societies. While sociology does not lend itself to rigorous scientific analysis in terms of conception and verification of theories, there are indeed some proven methods of testing the veracity of theories pertaining to sociology. Sociology is usually approached from certain broad theoretical frameworks such as the Marxist approach, nationalist approach, etc. In each of these approaches, one aspect of a community is given importance to. For example, in the Marxist approach to studying sociology, the social class of an individual and his/her community is given prominence. Similarly sociology can be studied from a majority/minority perspective wherein the issues and problems faced by minority communities are given special attention. Ultimately, all these approaches have one thing in common, namely, the identification of pressing social problems and devising of ways to alleviate them. While . . . Read More
The basic tenet of Cognitive Theory is the fact that people are products of the way they think and construct their realities; and by identifying the flaws and distortions in thought patterns, the therapist can devise ways of rectifying the problem. Cognitive Theory is founded on the principle that each individual’s conditioned thought patterns go a long way in determining their perception of events and understanding of facts. While emotions such as loss, grief, loneliness and sadness are to an extent subjective to the particular individual, using broad analytic techniques the therapist can gain insights into the nature of patient experience. Cognitive theory is most useful when dealing with patients suffering from anxiety, depression, panic attacks, etc. Often, in these cases, the perceived threat/loss of the patient is likely to be exaggerated and aberrant. By bringing the patient to see the difference between his/her subjective internal assessment of situations to that of an . . . Read More
The issue of maintaining law and order is as old as the origins of civil society. While a large majority of the population are law abiding and conform to the social norms of the times, there is always an underbelly of disorderly conduct on part of a disturbed minority. As the process of urbanization takes off and more people start residing in major cities, the fissures start to appear within the apparent harmonious co-existence. There are several reasons why disorderly conduct on part of individuals and groups takes place. Sociologists have proposed numerous theories explaining this phenomenon. This essay will pertain itself to the contrasting viewpoints presented by the theories of Erving Goffman and Michel Foucault by citing real instances that support their theory.
Erving Goffman was an astute observer of society, who immersed himself in the social environment which he was studying. He carefully observed and recorded the ways in which people’s behavior and interpersonal . . . Read More
Hannibal Lecter is a recurring central character in many of Thomas Harris’ novels. Starting from the novel Red Dragon, the character appears in all four sequels including The Silence of the Lambs. In the author’s own words, Lecter is a masterful psychiatrist and a cannibalistic serial killer. Given that Lecter is a fictional character, the author had constructed a unique psychological profile that did not exactly fit with conventional categories. In other words, there is hardly any reference in mainstream press and medical history for a person with such a psychological profile. Nevertheless, based on first hand information gathered by the author’s biographer David Sexton, it is learnt that the character of Hannibal Lecter was based on that of William Coyne, a notorious serial killer who terrorized American society in the 1930s. In this context, one can claim that Lecter’s profile belongs to the Psychopath category. This assessment also makes sense when one . . . Read More
a) What nursing strategies could you document in your care plan that might assist the patient to drink the volume required to maintain their physical well-being?
Patients with paranoid schizophrenia are highly suspicious of their environment, always being on the lookout for lurking dangers where none really exist. In order to make the patient in question drink the required volume of water everyday, the caretaker must come up with strategies that take into account the fragile and unpredictable state of mind of the patient. If the patient suspects that the water given to him is poisoned, it would be a good idea to take a sip of water before the patient’s eyes, so that he is reassured of its palatability. Since water is an essential intake for the patient, the caretaker might have to repeat this exercise several times over the course of a day. While it might be cumbersome and annoying at first, there are good chances that the patient grows less . . . Read More
The book Reviving Ophelia, which is written by Mary Pipher, deals with the topic of adolescence in girls. The author peruses widely accepted concepts in the fields of psychology, sociology and gender studies to illuminate her thesis. At the outset, Pipher talks about the numerous challenges imposed on adolescent girls by the society of today. For example, she sees contemporary society as a ‘girl-poisoning’ one, which essentially forces young girls to turn into “female impersonators who fit their whole selves into small, crowded spaces”. Instead of letting the girl find her true calling through a process of exploration and experiment, the strictures of American society narrows down the scope of their individual expression. The author cites numerous anecdotal examples in the book, by way of which she throws light on key psychological insights on female adolescence. Reviving Ophelia does not stop with illustrations of the state of young women in the United . . . Read More
The reading titled “Beyond Reason: The Nature of the Ethnonational Bond”, written by Walker Connor, will provide the contextual background for this think-piece exercise. The central argument of the author is that ethno-national bond is much stronger than patriotic bond. The basis for the formation of ethno-national bonds are never fully based on fact and evidence, but rather on some vague but convincing feeling of kinship within a group of people. In other words, the concept of ethno-nationality appeals to the notion of common genetic inheritance alongside other tangible aspects such as language, culture, religion, etc.
The author presents a wide range of examples to support the aforementioned thesis. By perusing relevant scholarship, the author does make a persuasive case for the superiority of ethno-national bonds over patriotic bonds. The notion of common ethnicity has played a significant role throughout the history of human civilization, whereas patriotism as is . . . Read More
Aggressive nationalisms always claim that they are regrettable but rational defensive reactions against perceived external threats; but this claim that aggression is defence, and that aggression is rational, is always (or often?) itself an irrational claim. Explain and comment upon this statement
Every ethnic group in the world had faced or initiated aggression against another throughout the human history. In the hundred years before the end of Cold War there have been radical transformations from monarchy to communism to democracy, from liberal capitalism to stringent economic protectionism, and vice versa across the globe. Not only have there been numerous instances of such changes but have also oscillated from one extreme to another. Amid all this churning, the one strong conception with which peoples in different parts of the world could identify with is their ‘nation’. The prevailing geo-political circumstances of the recent centuries have made these . . . Read More