Thermopylae was a pass in the mainland Greece. The access to this pass was of strategic importance to the invading forces, as it is the only major pathway to make further inroads into the mainland. The Greek forces were unsuccessful in their attempt to hold on to this pass against the invading Persian forces. The war that took place between these two confronting armies in 480 B.C. has come to be known as the Battle of Thermopylae.
The Spartans, who formed the bulk of the defending Greek forces, were all killed. Outnumbered by the . . . Read More
Uzodinma Iweala’s critically acclaimed novel “Beasts of No Nation” is set a West African country. This unnamed country is in political and civil turmoil. The protagonist in the novel is the child soldier Agu, who is compelled to join the militia amid chaos, fear and uncertainty. Iweala adopts a social-realistic narrative approach in portraying the human condition in a war situation. Though it is a work of fiction, the novel brings to light the harsh political conditions in third world countries.
The character of Agu is a representation . . . Read More
The black-and-white version of King Kong, made in 1933, is a typical Hollywood film. All aspects of the film have trademark Hollywood elements in them. The following passages will see an explication of this assertion.
In many ways this is a ground-breaking film. It set a precedent for all the subsequent thriller/horror/animation films that have been made in Hollywood. It would not be an exaggeration to state that in all subsequent movies of these genres, traces of King Kong could be found. Not many people today would be excited at the prospect of viewing this 1933 edition. The reason being, they have already seen aspects of King Kong in many movies that the novelty completely escapes the mind. Is this a judgement on the true merit of the film? The answer is in the negative. The only proper way in evaluating the . . . Read More
The interpretation of original Islamic texts paints a far liberal and feminist picture than what is made of it in the centuries to follow. What we see in today’s Islamic world is a lot of injustice to women. Women are oppressed under the false pretense of upholding Islamic virtue. The present system “keeps people locked in roles that stunt their growth and unjustly penalizes women who would exercise their rights”. Indeed, if true Islam were to be implemented many injustices against women could be prevented – rapists won’t . . . Read More
The problem of designing and implementing a system of inquiry into code-of-ethics compliance can be approached in two ways – process based and outcome based evaluations. A sound data collection plan that would use surveys, interviews and focus groups, and direct observations will be the key instrument in either of the approaches. The measure of Organizational culture is another important component in the evaluation process. And an analysis of the indicators of the overall program performance forms the essential last step that consummates the inquiry.
The basic purpose of a compliance program for following the code of ethics is to help the employees at all levels and functions within the organization to work together and achieve the broader and narrower goals and objectives in such a way as to be consistent with standards of ethical behavior. The ethics compliance program and the system of . . . Read More
Gaster writes that “the mythological story presupposes activity on a level somewhat different from that of the actual and empirical. Its [. . .] characters can violate the normal laws of nature; they can change shape and sex, or traverse prodigious distances at a bound” (Sacred Narrative 129). A suitable analogy to the genre of Mythology would be the works based on Magical Realism in contemporary fiction. As in Magical Realism, the Mythology portrays events out of the ordinary and characters out of touch with reality. Yet, their implication is always applicable to the existing reality. The Greek and Roman Mythologies alongside the Indian Epics in the form of Ramayana present some striking examples of this fact. For instance, the male protagonist in Ramayana can invoke divine assistance by reciting sacred verses. Here, the human and God are seamlessly weaved into the character of Rama, which is an obvious breach of natural law as we understand it.
In this . . . Read More
Dardel assertion that myths are neither true nor false can be explained the following way. Many mythologies are composed in the form of epic poems. And poetry hands its writer with an artistic license, and allows him to concentrate on the aesthetic aspects of the work. Inevitably, factuality becomes irrelevant in such a scenario. Hence, the distinction between the literal and metaphorical representations becomes impossible to ascertain. Also, the usual mode of propagation is through oratorical recitals. In such a transfer of information, a certain degree of mutation is inevitable and in most such cases indiscernible.
Dardel also states that the myth is always in the present and never in the past. This could be understood by considering the fact that all myths were a product of the respective elites. And as an instrument of preserving the elite interests, the significance of all mythology is to manufacture the desired social order at any given time present. . . . Read More
During the times of its conception and application, mythologies were intricately woven into the fabric of society. It is to be noted that for primitive people mythologies were the predominant source of information and entertainment. Hence, it becomes difficult to distinguish between the theoretical and practical sides of these stories. In the context of this uncertainty, it is inevitable that various and often conflicting interpretations of the meaning and significance of mythologies are formed. So no particular interpretation is universally acceptable. This leads to definitions that are only valid within a certain social and cultural unit of organization. At the time of its origins, human societies were largely feudalistic and paternalistic. This reality is also reflected in much of the literature of these times, which were again component parts that comprise the mythology.
Every social order has had its ruling class. And mythologies were frequently employed . . . Read More
Mythologies of all types are consistently associated with a central heroic character. Some historians believe that mythologies evolved in the first place as a medium of admiration for the hero. The actual manifestation of the hero can take varied forms. He/she could assume the form of a human being with all its frailties or can be conjured up to having special and extra-human powers. In its latter form, the hero is equated with God himself and it is not uncommon to find references to him as the son of God.
Another defining characteristic of the Hero is his benevolence. All mythic heroes are invariably ethical and moral. Most of the stories depict his hardship and travails in pursuit of a morally acceptable equilibrium. His persistence in the face of adversity and his dedication to his convictions are the other hallmarks of a mythic hero. But most importantly, irrespective of the human or super-human quality of the Hero, the mythology surrounding him is . . . Read More
One of the predominant themes in African music is the close relationship between music and language. For instance,
“African tone languages, with their inter-syllabic relational pitch structure, manifest a musical aspect that in turn constrains melodic contour. Second, the popular and popularizing phenomenon of talking drums, the idea that drums (and other speech surrogates) “speak” and are understood in the way that one understands spoken language–this phenomenon has at its core a configuration involving music and language. And third, the words that enable song, the poet’s emergent music that is eventually colonized by the composer’s music–these song words raise a host of interesting questions about how language is articulated in song, to what extent song displays autonomous structure, and ways in which meaning is transferred from text to music and vice versa.” . . . Read More