The aftermath of the Second World War saw the formation of a bi-polar world, with the United States and the Soviet Union dominating their respective hemispheres. Both the powers were equipped with nuclear arsenal and any direct confrontation could have led to the destruction of the species. In this atmosphere where the stakes are very high, most of the strategic advantage is won through diplomacy and applying political pressure. This variety of wielding power has come to be known as the Cold War, where advantages were won or lost through tactful diplomacy as against the . . . Read More
On par with the written word, photography is a potent tool of historical documentation. The advent of still picture devices, as they were crudely called during their initial days, coincided with the peak years of European colonialism. While the concept of photography is a valuable aid for a historical scholar in presenting “facts”, the prevailing prejudices and biases of the imperial powers had influenced its ultimate usage. Though, photography had to pass through the veils of imperialist prejudices, it still remains a significant medium of studying history and the mindsets of the people who made that history.
To start with, photography was employed during the 1860’s for research purposes in the so-called “racial-science”. This was an age when Darwin’s theory of evolution was revolutionizing the society. Yet, some deviant off-shoots of the theory of evolution like “social Darwinism” and “racial group selection based evolution” were gaining ground . . . Read More
The fact that the United States does not have a universal health insurance system is undoubtedly bad for its citizens. Despite being the most advanced nation in the world economy-wise, the United States holds the notorious distinction of having a highly-under-functioning health-care system. This fact is proven by the high rates of negative outcomes for patients as well as the percentage of the population that could not afford to purchase insurance plans.
Several public opinion polls have indicated that the general public is overwhelmingly in support of a nationalized health-care system, meaning that healthcare should come under the domain of the government, away from private corporations. But, in spite of this unanimous support for a universal healthcare system (that includes universal insurance), the issue never crops up during presidential debates. The limitations of the two-party democratic system are also being exposed as a result. Both the Democratic Party and . . . Read More
The purpose of this report is to find out how gender identity, gender roles and sexual identity influences and shapes the subsequent development of an individual. The report shall also look at different theories of gender development, namely, Psychodynamic, Biological and Social learning theory. Further, the report will examine the essential components of the Nature and Nurture debate on gender development. The changing nature of gender roles in the 21st century is discussed and some practical examples of these changes being investigated. Then, it will critically analyse the role media plays in shaping human behaviour. Lastly, the report will look how gender roles are acquired through the observation of male and female social role models.
The awareness of who we . . . Read More
The book “Writing, The War on Terrorism” is a detailed scholarly analysis on the use of language in the media and political offices before and during the so called “counter-terrorism” operations led by the United States and its allies. The central thesis of this work is the claim that the mainstream rhetoric is a carefully orchestrated effort, executed with the intention of manipulating public opinion regarding the War on Terror. The author supports his arguments by quoting from official documents and public records in the lead up to and during the war operations. The book also tries to expose the impotency of the mainstream media in asking tough questions of people in power by citing the story of abused Iraqi prisoners.
While the book is well-referenced and comprehensive in its treatment of the subject, it is not devoid of flaws. Nevertheless, what flaws there are is peripheral to the essence of the book. For the most part, Richard Jackson comes up with a . . . Read More
The central thesis of Sigmund Freud’s Civilization and its Discontents is the assertion that the conflict between sexual needs and the societies restrictions is a big factor to human “dissatisfaction, aggression, hostility and ultimately, violence”. Given that the book was published in 1930, people’s mindsets were largely conservative, which led to protests and outcry against the book. But putting it in a purely scientific context, there is much truth in this thesis. *Freud’s introduction to his book begins with the following . . . Read More
The British and American political systems are chosen for this comparative study. While both these nation states fall within the democratic framework, they differ in some significant ways. For one, while the American system is essentially a two-party democracy, the British system is a multi-party one. Also, the American system is “federal”, meaning that there are two levels of government, both of them being equally . . . Read More
Origins of International Law movements:
The concept of developing international law by bringing forth already accepted rules or through the design of new rules has a long history in international affairs. Prominent intellectual of the last century Jeremy Bentham proposed a system that would allow “codification of the whole of international law, though in a utopian spirit” (Lee, 546). Since then, many attempts have been made to achieve a comprehensive code of international law, with the help of various governments across the world. The prime motivating factor for world institutions to make progress with the codification movement arises from the belief that by having a framework of written laws and regulations, international disputes and conflicts could be resolved without resorting to force. Moreover, the torchbearers of the movement believed that “by filling existing gaps in the law, as well as by giving precision to abstract general . . . Read More
Several studies have shown that the relationship established between a child and its caretaker (parent or guardian) will have a significant influence in the subsequent psychological development of the child. There is statistical empirical evidence to support this thesis. A negative attachment pattern can lead the child to psychiatric as well as emotional disorders. These negative influences can be physical abuse, sexual abuse or neglect. But recent progress in the field of pediatric psychology has thrown light on Dyadic Developmental . . . Read More
Thesis: Significant differences between the worlds of social marketing and commercial marketing mean that the transfer of commercial marketing concepts into the social marketing arena poses a number of problems to the social marketing program
Andreasen defines social marketing as “the application of commercial marketing technologies to the analysis, planning, execution and evaluation of programs designed to influence the voluntary behaviour of target audiences in order to improve their personal welfare and that of society”. However, significant differences between the worlds of social marketing and commercial marketing mean that the transfer of commercial marketing concepts into the social marketing arena pose a number of problems to the social marketing program (Andreasen, 2000; Bloom and Novelli, 1981). The rest of this essay will explore the inherent differences between these . . . Read More