There is a widely held consensus that postmodernism is a reaction to modernism and hence concerns itself only with “otherness”, “difference” and “identity”. High modernism is rarely occupied with the experiences of the cultural minorities and nor does it involve critical analyses of their experiences. People in the margin regard the links between their sense of community and postmodernism as very feeble. It is impossible for the group in the margin to consciously associate its discourse with the other dominating group that does not seem keen to associate. Though postmodernism still has the potential to be an effective liberating space for the subjugated, it is seldom used for this end (McGuigan 98).
One key aspect of the visual aesthetic of the black community is that of the body. The notions surrounding black hair and its style provide us a contextual framework for analyzing its relation to . . . Read More
The recognition that the free trade system needs to be balanced by a legislative framework came from Tony Blair in a recent World Bank meeting in Prague. The prime minister emphasized the raising of labour and animal welfare standards. He also expressed concerns for employer’s attitude towards worker and environmental health. The fact that around tens of thousands of people from around the world participated in protests against the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund during this meeting suggests that the free market approaches to trade had not been totally fair to workers and their communities (Webster, Allan. & Gilroy, Michael. P.329).
The report released on the occasion, titled “Rights of Exchange: Social, Health, Environmental and Trade Objectives on the Global Stage”, is one among the many steps taken by politicians in trying to strike a balance between free and . . . Read More
Repeated spanking of a child will lead him/her to develop social and mental problems as an adult, irrespective of the frequency and intensity of the spanking. The following points will support this contention.
I. Punishing may make the undesirable behavior look more attractive and thus add value to it. (McCord, 832)
a. It is also logically deducible that using punishment to control children’s behavior will lead to undesirable consequences.
b. In the end, punishment may just teach a child how not to get caught. (McCord, 833)
1. When parents or other adults inflict painful punishment, the children who receive them would learn that administering pain to others is also alright.
2. When children mould their behavior as ways to avoid pain, they are likely to end up as self-centered and selfish adults. (McCord, 832)
a. It . . . Read More
The main focus of the story is on the moral dilemmas confronting the young boy Sarty, who is torn apart between his loyalty to his violent and anti-social father and the tendency to abide by the norms of the society at large. But, around that scaffold, Faulkner builds his statements depicting serious discords within the American society. These aspects of the story are easy to miss if we pay attention only to the central theme of the story. There is also a tendency on part of a reader not to delve into uncomfortable issues and concepts. The remainder of the essay is an attempt to bring to the reader’s notice those apparently peripheral and implicit messages about the social realities of this era in American history. Though the story was set in the last decades of the 19th century, Faulkner wrote it following the Great Depression. So bringing to awareness the oppressive . . . Read More
John Thompson had stated that “messages transmitted by the mass media are received by specific individuals situated in definite social-historical contexts”. He was quite right in asserting that though the media messages are broadcast to a large audience, the messages are ultimately consumed at the level of the individual. The way the message would be treated would depend on their social-historical contexts. For instance, the general level of education of the media audience is a factor that determines their historical context. People in an agrarian society in a third world country will be poorly educated and their ability to grasp media messages would be limited to that extent. On the other hand, an urban audience will have a wider perspective about different aspects of life, which means they are better equipped in understanding and . . . Read More
The Suicide Note poem, written by Janice Mirikitani, is about a young Asian-American female college student who commits suicide by jumping out of her dormitory window. The last words, thoughts and feelings were recorded in the suicide note she leaves behind. This note, written in the form of a poem, allows the reader to see what induces an individual to take his/her own life. The poem describes the line of thinking of a despaired college girl, who relentlessly feels that she is not good enough. Mirikitani presents the poem in the form of a suicide note written by the poor girl to her parents. This was a heartbreaking incident that should never have happened in the first place. So, what is it that pushed this girl student over the edge? Whose fault is it? Where to place the blame? This essay aims to look into these angles and offer an analysis.
This suicidal girl has a perfectionist streak in her, which compels her to be highly critical of . . . Read More
Cycles of economic boom and bust are regular features of market economies. The global recession that set in during 2008 is the most recent episode of this phenomenon and is likely to be repeated in the future as well. Although the scale and magnitude of these crises have somewhat reduced in the period after the Second World War, they have been big enough to be termed critical policy failures of governments across the world. And in the neo-liberal economic order of the world today, national economies are ever more intertwined, making it impossible for any one nation to insulate itself and its people from the effects of the crisis. This is most obvious when we take a look at the data pertaining to the recent global economic recession, precipitated by the collapse of credit derivatives. (Weale, . . . Read More
The unwanted and unsolicited e-mails that Internet users are forced to receive is known as Spam. These mails are usually commercial advertising, quasi-legal services, get-rich-quick schemes, etc. intended to mislead and deceive the recipients. The cost to the perpetrators of Spam is very little and it is the recipients and Internet service providers who pay heavily as a result. The most common form of spam is that delivered in e-mail as a commercial advertisement. However, over the course of electronic media history, people have spammed for various purposes other than commercial, and in different media than internet. Spammers have developed a variety of spamming techniques, which vary by media: email spam, instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, and mobile phone messaging spam. (Fight Spam on the Internet)
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Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) was a Canadian philosopher, linguist, literary critic, communications theorist and a professor of English literature. He is the founding father of the field of study now termed “media ecology”.
In Marshall McLuhan’s pioneering work on print culture, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man, he presents the view that communication technology profoundly affects cognitive action and ultimately affects social organization.
For instance, the speed . . . Read More
The movie North Country was based on the book ”Class Action: The Landmark Case That Changed Sexual Harassment Law” which tells the story of Lois Jenson, who filed the first class action lawsuit for sexual harassment in American history. In the film, Theron plays the daughter of an iron miner (Richard Jenkins) working in a mine in Northern Minnesota Mesabi Iron Range. When Josey leaves an abusive husband and moves back to her hometown into her parents’ house, she was not welcomed. Her father assumes, without even interrogating his daughter, that it was her infidelity to her husband that had created the situation. Even her own son thinks that she is a whore. What this shows is the tendency to assume that it’s the woman’s fault in any conflict with men. Such biases were more prevalent in the chronological setting of the film, which covers the last few decades of the 20th century (Rosen).
All Josey . . . Read More