i. Job Enlargement
Job enlargement increases the scope of the job. Employees are given more variety in order to increase job satisfaction. Usually various work functions from a horizontal slice of a work area are combined, giving employees more tasks to perform. Sometimes tasks are rearranged between several employees so that each employee gets a sense of the wholeness of a job. (Yvonne,1999, p.129)
ii. Job Enrichment
With this approach individual employees may be given responsibility for deciding the best way to perform a particular task, and for correcting their own errors. They may also be involved in making decisions, which affect their own work areas.
iii. Job Rotation
Job rotation is a system whereby employees move from one job to another. This rotation may occur over various time spans, from, say, every two hours, to every week or month. It gives employees increased variety, and helps to relieve the monotony of routine, repetitive work. It also gives employees the opportunity to develop different skills, and mix with different people
iv. Semi-autonomous Work Groups
Semi-autonomous work groups are groups of employees working together, who se largely self-sufficient in terms of managing the tasks and functions for which they are responsible. This approach gives employees a sense of identity with, and responsibility to, the group. (Yvonne, 1999, p.131)
Performance appraisal is a systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his performance on the job and his potential for development. Performance appraisal helps the supervisors to evaluate the performance and to know the potentials of their subordinates systematically and periodically in following ways: (Yvonne, 1999, p.144)
(a) It helps in the correct placement of workers.
(b) Performance rating helps in guiding and correcting employees.
(c) It helps the employees to know where they stand and consequently they try to improve their performance.
(d) The performance appraisal helps to find out the ability of the personnel. This will stimulate them to better their performance in a bid to improve their rating over others.
(e) Ratings can be used as the basis of sound personnel policy in relation to transfer and promotion.
(f) Performance appraisal helps in designing the training programme in better way.
(g) The performance appraisal if done scientifically and systematically will prevent grievances and develop a sense of confidence amongst workers because they are convinced of the impartial basis of evaluation.