DETERMINING EFFECTIVE ORIENTATION AND TRAINING METHODS
• Training and Development
Training is usually taken to mean providing employees with knowledge or specific job skills to satisfy immediate job or organizational needs. This could range from assembly workers learning new techniques to enable them to increase output, to managers learning how to better manage their time. (Yvonne, 1999, p.120)
Development usually refers to preparing employees for longer-term opportunities. It encompasses both personal and organizational needs and has a more general focus.
Supervisor provides training and development in an organization usually following four steps:
(a) Identifying employees training and development needs;
(b) Developing a training plan for each individual;
(c) Selecting or designing or conducting training activities;
(d) Evaluating the results.
Supervisor identifies training needs in an organization by following three main methods:
i. New employees – training is required immediately in order for the employees to perform the work satisfactorily.
ii. Performance appraisals – an employee’s output may indicate that further training is required, or he or she may request training in a specific area.
iii. Future needs – employees are trained in anticipation of future needs (often involving the use of technology).
Care must be taken by the supervisor to ensure that training will solve a specific problem. Sometimes other options may be more effective, such as: changing the job, or some aspect of it; changing the salary or wage structure; or introducing flexible working hours Sometimes various types of training activity are used simply to motivate employees. (Yvonne,1999, p.125)
Supervisor in some organizations develop formal training plans for their employees. Such training plans tend to be more specific for people in the lower levels of the organization, and more general for people at higher levels. Sometimes such training is part of the career development for certain individuals.
• Improving The Work Environment
People whose work is highly specialized, repetitive and routine may become dissatisfied with their job. This dissatisfaction often shows itself by reduced output, increased absenteeism and high staff turnover. This very quickly reduces effectiveness of a work area, and influences the effectiveness of the whole organization. A number of approaches have been developed to try to overcome this problem.