Iago’s hatred of Othello emerges from a variety of reasons. At the outset, Iago is Othello’s servant and there is bound to be a systemic hatred against one’s masters. Then there is Desdemona, the most gracious and virtuous wife of Othello. The intimate and exemplary nature of their mutual love and devotion inspires envy and none more strongly from Iago himself. In the play, Iago is so placed that he sees opportunities to improve his station in life by bringing about his master’s demise. Seen from this perspective, Iago holds no special grievance against Othello, but rather the latter happens to be a mere hurdle to Iago’s social and economic progress. Shakespearean scholars through the centuries have forwarded a variety of reasons for Iago’s apparent hatred of Othello. This essay will provide the whole gamut of reasons offered by scholars, namely sexual envy, material opportunity, religious belief, ethnic and racial prejudice, social and economic progress, etc; but it . . . Read More
The multinational business enterprise and its attendant economic phenomenon of globalisation have become ubiquitous in the new neo-liberal world order of the last few decades. However, all too often, these enterprises’ activities have lacked prudence and foresight in terms of the consequences for the local populations. Moreover, the loopholes of international business law allow these companies to go scot-free and evade accountability toward the citizens of the countries in which they operate. Globalisation per se can either be beneficial or disadvantageous to a particular country. But, recent evidence suggests that there are more cases of the latter than the former. The culmination of this discontent among the masses of lesser developed regions of the world seems to fuel the fire of trans-national terrorism. This essay tries to find how far true the criticisms directed at the phenomenon of neo-liberal globalisation are, and how much it is culpable for the propagation . . . Read More
The novel Anton Reiser by Karl Philipp Moritz deals with issues of growing up in Germany toward the end of the eighteenth century. This semi-autobiographical work traces the first twenty one years the author’s own life. The author performs a retrospective analysis of his psychological development during these years. This essay will pertain itself to one particular aspect of the work, namely, the analogy between Anton Reiser’s resort to reading books with the modern day teen phenomenon of using recreational drugs.
A careful scrutiny of the early life of Reiser gives clues to his psychological development and his propensity to fall back on escapist activities. Foremost among the conditions was the family environment in which he grew up. He has a very unpleasant childhood as his parents never get along. From this backdrop of a dysfunctional family he is apprenticeship with a pietistic hat-maker proves equally troublesome and is forced to go back to school. His . . . Read More
When one thinks of Switzerland, things that immediately come to mind are high-precision watches and the Alps mountain range. But beyond these obvious highlights, the country can boast of a multi-cultural and multi-lingual demography as well as offering a high standard of living for its citizens. In many ways, Switzerland is unique among Western European nations. The following passages will present the facts and factors that contributed to the development of the nation.
The decisive political moment in the history Switzerland was in 1848, when the Swiss Federation changed from a Union of States to a Confederation. But democracy and other progressive social changes were slow to come by, for even as late as 1970, women in Switzerland did not have voting franchise. In recent decades, the most significant event came in the form of the nation not joining the European Economic Area (EEA) in a 1992 referendum. From a socio-political perspective, the election in 1999 of . . . Read More
King Lear is widely acknowledged as one of William Shakespeare’s great tragedies. This essay will identify and analyze a couple of key scenes from the play which makes a significant contribution to the overall development of plot, its character and the theme.
Act 1 Scene 1
The very first scene from the first act is important for various reasons. Firstly, it introduces all the central characters in the play and gives an indication as to their dispositions. Of the three daughters of King Lear, the two elder ones Goneril and Regan play the roles of antagonists along with the ever conspiring illegitimate son of Gloucester, Edmund. King Lear assembles in his court his heirs-apparent and key members of the nobility as he decides to announce the details of inheritance of his Kingdom. The ensuring dialogue between King Lear and his three daughters sets the tone for subsequent developments in the plot and also captures the . . . Read More
One of the key advantages of limited liability partnerships (LLPs) is that it minimizes the risk borne by each member of the partnership. But, LLPs still impose certain obligations from each of the partner as a way of maintaining standards of accountability. LLPs differ from other general partnerships in one particular aspect, namely, that each partner is only liable to his/her own debts and obligations and are not required to share the burden of their partners’ debts and obligations. In the United States, there are comprehensive legislation that govern the conception and formation of LLPs. This form of partnership is more suitable to companies offering professional services such as law firms, an accountancy firms, etc. As a matter of fact, a few states within the United States allow only certain professional classes to form LLPs. The primary legislative document that deals with partnership firms is the Uniform Partnership Act, which provides detailed guidelines. Further, many . . . Read More
The following essay is an attempt at designing a scale/test for measuring an individual’s self-esteem.
Item1: Propensity for Depression:
One of the key factors that contribute to a person’s self-esteem is his/her propensity to fall into depressive episodes. It is well established in psychology literature that abusive experiences during formative years can have consequences for the person during adulthood. By ascertaining whether the person is presently depressed or not, we can indirectly deduce their self-esteem levels. Of course, no elaborate tests need be constructed for testing depressive illness, as the DSM-IV scale is sufficient for the purpose. All those who are clinically depressed also suffer from low self-esteem during the period of depression; whereas not all people with low self-esteem fall into bouts of depression. This is an important distinction that should be kept in mind when arriving at the final assessment of the . . . Read More
The penal system in the United States of America, as is elsewhere in the world is far from the best solution for curbing anti-social tendencies among citizens. As it is, the penal system is synonymous with imprisonment and social seclusion, both of them conditions that don’t encourage positive transformations for the imprisoned individuals. Seen in this context, reforming the penal system should be a priority for policy makers and elected representatives. The following passages will articulate some key changes to the penal system that would help mitigate some of the drawbacks of the prevailing situation.
An area that needs expedient redress is the amount of time consumed for solving criminal cases. The adage ‘justice delayed is justice denied’ is still quite valid and the judiciary must see to it that the distressed caused to innocent defendants is kept to a minimum. Recent surveys have also indicated that those individuals involved in law trials are poorly . . . Read More
As the world enters a new millennium, urban planners are grappling with new ways of building sustainable urban spaces. Presently, most cities across the world are too congested for its inhabitants. On top of this, urban dwellers’ preference for owning cars contributes to the growing volumes of toxic waste. This directly leads to the phenomenon of global warming and its attendant environmental catastrophes. It is in this context that we need to study the model design of the Cliff City project, off the coast of Portland, Dorset. Conceived and designed by Hannah Chalmer-Stevens, the objective of the project is to build a sustainable and environmentally friendly wave and wind farm.
The central theme of the Cliff City project is ‘green’ architecture, meaning that it firmly lays emphasis on sustainability and preservation of surrounding ecology. Apart from the usual urban provisions for a library, pub and café, the project features such innovations as roof-top gardens and . . . Read More
Jeffry Frieden’s book Global Capitalism: Its Fall and Rise in the Twentieth century is a highly relevant topic today. Consistent with Frieden’s hypothesis, global economic integration has grown to new levels during the last century. Several arguments could be forwarded supporting the merits and demerits of this new economic order and its overall value as a politico-economic theory. But this essay will confine itself to the task of verifying the claims made by Frieden’s in his book. The rest of the essay will argue that ‘economic globalization’ has indeed seen a spectacular growth in the second half of the twentieth century; and while its ascendancy is beyond dispute its usefulness and compatibility with the newly evolving twentieth century global political situation remains a point of debate.
Frieden is right in his assessment that globalization has become ubiquitous in the new neo-liberal world order of the last few decades. However, all too often, the flaws . . . Read More