The advent of molecular genetic diagnostics has opened up new opportunities in the field of preventative and restorative healthcare. The newly available genetic diagnostic technologies have given rise to legal and moral conundrums that have not been sufficiently resolved. Just as the debate on the broader implications of genetic technology continues, the number of patients willing to avail of the technology is also on the rise. Such trends are witnessed here in the United Kingdom, as elsewhere in the industrialized world. This essay will discuss the molecular genetic diagnostic . . . Read More
The American criminal justice system has adopted punitive measures of varying degrees, the harshest of them being capital punishment. Over the recent decades, the judiciary has decidedly moved toward incorporating more restorative measures in its sentencing. This is not applicable across the length and breadth of the country, as the conservative South is still differentiated by its unwillingness to abandon death penalty. Nevertheless, at least in the more liberal states of the Union, the judiciary is seen to promote community service or work release as a means of delivering justice. It was intended that such alternative sentencing will inculcate into the offending individual a sense of social responsibility and self-reliance. The rest of the essay will discuss the pros and cons of these alternative approaches to criminal justice, with a special focus on community work/service programs.
As a result of community work programs, the participant individuals undergo a personal . . . Read More
The first few years of the new millennium is defined by the rise of terrorism across the world. This escalation is attributable to two primary causes. The first is the hegemonic foreign policy initiatives of the United States of America, tacitly supported by its strong allies that include Britain and Australia. The second is the radicalization of Islamist ideology, which has given shape to the concept of ‘holy jihad’ and ‘noble martyrdom’, making it easy to find willing participants in terror operations. Any study of terrorism in the contemporary world should be made in light of these two complementing factors and this essay attempts to do the same.
The United Nations has long been at the forefront of international peace initiatives. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States and subsequent terror strikes in the power centres of Europe and Asia, the UN had put . . . Read More
By being the tent companion of the lead protagonist Yossarian, the character of Orr is crucial to the narrative of the novel. Orr is a bomber pilot, who undertakes highly risky bombing operations for his squadron. In his personal exchanges, he comes across as light-hearted, comical and even at times eccentric. And his habitual crash landings even suggest a self-destructive streak. But, in spite of these immediate impressions, Orr turns out to be a shrewd and ingenuous individual who successfully . . . Read More
The issue of regulating internet content is highly significant, given the exponential growth in the use of this medium for commercial and informational purposes. When the internet was thrown open for commercial use during the mid 1990s, most of its content originated from the United States of America, making English the dominant language in the Internet. This phenomenon was a reflection of the fact that the content was directed at a universal audience located across geo-political borders. But, gradually, the complexion of the Internet undertook a process of change, making its content more relevant to local political and cultural conditions. The flip side of this localization is that the Internet is no longer the vehicle of free-speech and expression that it once was. Jack Goldsmith and Timothy Wu argue in their book ‘Who Controls the Internet? Illusions of a Borderless World’ that this transformation of the cyberspace is for the better, where as Milton Mueller disagree with this . . . Read More
No single idea in the realm of political science has had the kind of impact on large sections of humanity as that of Communism. Right from its origins in the form of an abstract political philosophy in 1847 till its unexpected disintegration in the late 1980s, Communism had been an antidote to Capitalist ideology with its attendant injustices – economic and social. This essay will discuss the rise of the Communist state and the challenges it posed to the laizez faire capitalist societies of the last two centuries.
The question of origins of Communist thought can be traced back to biblical times, when Moses delivered the Sermon on the Mount to his disciples. Marx’s political philosophy attracted as many followers as Moses, but its foundation is secular. Moreover, Karl Marx, having born into a Jewish family, brought to his scientific historical analysis elements of the New Testament, although this might have happened subconsciously. While many historians talk about the . . . Read More
The article published in The Guardian of 12th July 2007, titled “Too Big for the Planet?” is chosen for analysis in this essay. The Optimum Population Trust, a think tank “dedicated to reducing the population growth and its effects on the world” recommend that families should have no more than two children because any more children would be harmful for the long term well being of the environment (The Guardian, July 12 2007). The think tank argues that apart from practical environmental benefits of smaller families, they also send a symbolic message of social responsibility to the rest of the world and encourage them to follow suit. The issue boils down to balancing the supply and demand ends of “green” consumer products. Author Joanna Moorhead spoke to three large families in the UK and heard their views on this small family proposal.
The Russel Fishers are a family of eight – the parents and six children. Jo Fisher, now 51 thinks that the . . . Read More
A careful assessment of the history of American judiciary reveals that the Supreme Court has played a significant role in helping move the nation toward progress. It also has to be admitted that the Supreme Court has at times been a barrier to progress, mainly because of its preoccupation with the technical aspects of constitutional law and the anxiety to protect the prevailing legal system. To its credit, the Supreme Court has handed many landmark judgments for American civil society including such verdicts as those in Rowe v. Wade (pertaining to abortion), Brown v. Board of Education (relating to racial . . . Read More
The Iran Contra Scandal still remains one of the dark episodes of the Ronald Reagan Administration that spanned two Presidential terms between 1980 and 1988. Toward the end of 1986, the biggest political and constitutional scandal since Richard Nixon’s implication in the Watergate scandal unraveled in the United States. To the astonishment of the gathered press corps Ronald Reagan admitted that money earned from covert arms deals with the Islamic Republic of Iran had been used to provide weapons for the Contra rebels . . . Read More
The issue of lesbian rights is the focus of this essay. By looking at the evolution of the lesbian rights movement from a historical perspective and by concentrating on the activists and their tactics, it is hoped that a thorough understanding of the subject would be attained. The essay attempts to deal with the history of lesbian rights movement in the United States of America and its implication for the rest of the world.
The beginnings of the fight for recognition of gays and lesbians as legitimate relationships began in the early decades of the . . . Read More