In conclusion, it is fair to say that the phenomenon of unemployment is mostly involuntary. The spate of suicides among other psychological trauma associated with unemployment make it implausible that it is voluntary. The rising number of ACAS filings from laid off employees is further testament to this assessment. On the theoretical front too, essays such as Michal Kalecki’s Political Aspects of Full Employment also highlight systemic reasons such as capitalist business cycles that put labour forces under pressure during downturns. Moreover, decline in consumption of basic goods and services during periods of high unemployment are often a harbinger for social and political upheaval.
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