Explain the secondary victimisation experienced by victims of sexual assault and domestic violence, and critically evaluate recent reforms to eliminate or reduce such secondary victimization.
Victimization can be either primary or secondary. In the latter case, the victim suffers from the consequences of the initial trauma. In other words, the victim “suffers from psychological and social damages by negative reactions of criminal justice system, families, friends, and media”. Psychological affectation as a result of witnessing a traumatic event can also be called secondary victimization. The Criminal Law of the UK did not deal with this aspect of violent crime until recently. As a result laws pertaining to secondary victimization are inadequate and do not always lead to fair and balanced justice (Schafer, 2006).
Usually, secondary victimization cases don’t get proper understanding from the concerned authorities. For example, police . . . Read More
Victim Support is a non-governmental national charity that helps victims of crime cope with their trauma. Victim Support has offices scattered across the length and breadth of United Kingdom. Volunteers form the core of the organization. They assume a varied range of roles – from being confidants to victims, informing them about their rights, advising victims on the ideal legal course of . . . Read More
The law banning the use of mobile phones in cars has been in place for some time now. However, there are increasing reports of people disobeying the law. Draw on theories and research in selective attention to produce an argument which would convince law breakers to stop using their phones while driving.
Road accidents that result due to mobile phones usage while driving, is a serious issue in contemporary urban societies. Some basic legislation has been introduced to deal with this problem, but their effectiveness is in question. The . . . Read More
The concept of Separation of Powers is drafted in the United States Constitution in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Articles. In this way, The Constitution is deliberately made inefficient, so that no one branch of government overwhelms proper the functioning of democracy. The Separation of Powers conceived by the founding fathers of the United States made sure of one particular thing: “to prevent the majority from ruling with an iron fist”. Based upon their personal experience as well as historical knowledge, the framers were able to design the constitution in such a way that no branch of the government holds too much power. This system of separating and sharing powers is also known as a system of Checks and Balances (Reitz, 2006).
Each of the three branches of government has strictly defined powers and obligations, and each one of them is subject to be checked and restricted by another branch. For example, while the President has the . . . Read More
Right from the publication of his first major work “The Selfish Gene Theory”, Richard Dawkins is never free of controversy. While Dawkins is impeccable as a scholar and an academic, most of his detractors are from the religious and conservative sections of the population. Over the years, Dawkins’ works on evolutionary biology have drawn equally vociferous applause and protest. The last in the sequence of his seminal works is “The God Delusion”. In this book, Dawkins strings . . . Read More
Discuss why and how the Eisenhower administration became involved in Guatemala. What were the ramifications of U.S. policies in Guatemala?
During the early months of 1962, hordes of demonstrators took to the streets in protest against the social and economic policies of the Guatemalan government headed by General Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes. The protesters were also disappointed with the level of corruption and election malpractices under the leadership . . . Read More
Discuss what Eisenhower meant by the “Military-Industrial Complex.” Why did the outgoing president feel the need to warn Americans about this? How justified were Eisenhower’s concerns? Was there any irony to this warning? Explain.
In his farewell address to the citizens of his nation, American . . . Read More
Electronic media has always been advertisers’ medium. Almost all popular electronic media of today – radio, television, the internet, movies, DVDs, etc are predominantly used as tools to leverage commerce and consumerism. In this scenario, what could be the role that documentary films play? Do they hold special significance in terms of their artistic and informative merits? Do they have any drawbacks? What does the future hold for this genre? The rest of the essay attempts to answer these questions.
Some of the advantages . . . Read More
In 2004 Google became a public corporation. Its debut price was $85 and within a year it rose to $300. The more than 300% growth in its first year is unprecedented to say the least. Google’s main competitor in the search engine business is Yahoo. But in spite of Yahoo’s longer presence in the internet services market, its market capitalization still falls below that of Google (a much later entrant to the market). This figure stood at an impressive 80 billion dollars toward the end of 2005.
One reason for Google’s success is its emphasis on innovation and its reputation of being the torch-bearer of . . . Read More
One significant problem relating to Dubai’s work force over the last 12 months has been with retaining skilled nationals. The strategy usually referred to as Emiratisation, was designed so as to prevent talented nationals from leaving the country for better opportunities abroad. This is not a recent development by any means. For long, a vast majority of the work force is comprised of expatriates. Consequently, the unemployment numbers among the nationals is one of the highest in the region. The fact that there are as many expatriates in government agencies as there are in private . . . Read More