In Les Faux Monnayeurs, Andre Gide adopts an experimental literary style. Employing the novel-within-a-novel format, Gide tries to capture his own persona through the character of Edouard. The usage of omniscient and multiple narrators makes the reader privy to the most intimate thoughts of the characters. There are two distinct layers to the novel. The first is the obvious reference to pure and counterfeited gold coins, which is outwardly the plot of the story. But at another level, even the characters are shown to wear two personalities – real and artificial. To this end, Gide creates a careful sketch of each of the characters. The composite nature of their personalities is most evident in characters such as Edouard, Olivier, Bernard, Georges and Laura.
In comparison, the number of characters in Lettres d’une Peruvienne is lesser than that of Les Faux Monnayeurs. This is partly a result of the epistolary form employed by author Francoise de Graffigny. This novel form . . . Read More
The simplistic version of history suggests a primitive/tribal way of life for indigenous Americans. Such a simplification detracts from the community a rich, ecologically informed culture, as well as an egalitarian social organization. The first chapter in the book by Roark, Johnson and team attempts to flesh out a complete picture of North American Indian culture before the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadors.
One of the key characteristics of Native Americans is their unique genealogy, which derives from African and Asian populations. Although this connection is not the most intuitive, anthropological studies using genetic markers have substantiated this understanding. In the late medieval period, they were believed to have adopted a hunter-gatherer mode of life. It is an important revelation, for everywhere else in the world agriculture and urbanization has already become entrenched. Bison was a great stock prey during the time as the ecology of the Great Plains suited it . . . Read More