Pan-European revolutions of 1830 manifested in different forms in different regions. In Netherlands and France they took a romantic hue, whereas in Poland and Switzerland the impact on the political establishment was less pronounced. In the United Kingdom of Netherlands and in France, the impact of the revolution was to establish constitutional monarchies (also called commonly as ‘popular monarchies’). This meant that the older aristocratic order was dismantled and republicanism was given a new thrust. For example, prior to the revolution, the king held dominion over his country through the mandate of God. His reference as the King of France testified this fact. But after the revolution, his title was changed to King of the French, indicating how his authority is derived from the collective will of the citizens. Likewise, in Belgium, King Leopold I took to the throne under the reconfigured political arrangement. At the same time in Congress Poland the revolt against the . . . Read MoreContinue Reading
Renaissance is a French term for rebirth. It was coined first in the 19th century to denote the revival of art and letters under the influence of ancient Roman and Greek models. This revival started in Italy in the 14th century, flourished in the 15th, and in the subsequent century reached apogee and then met with crisis. During these centuries, radical changes in art and science took place across Europe. In this sense, the term Renaissance has “also come to denote the era in general and its overriding spirit, in which desires intrinsic to human nature, generally repressed under medieval feudalism, burst forth with new fervor and resulted in a new culture.” (Osmond, 1998, p.18) For example, during the period, some basic changes in worldview took shape. It was a movement and an era of awakening that turned from the darkness and stagnation of the middle ages and laid the basis for Western civilization up to the present. The flowering of art during the Renaissance is what it is . . . Read MoreContinue Reading
Identify the major challenges (social, economic, military, religious, and intellectual) facing Europeans during the Late Middle Ages in Europe. Then explain why Europe did not sink into a “dark age” similar to that which followed the fall of Rome and why instead there was a Renaissance first in Italy and then in Europe north of the Alps.
The centuries between 1300 and 1500 AD have come to be collectively referred to as The Late Middle Ages with respect to European history. While some new innovations in Art and Architecture alongside discoveries in Science and Technology were taking place, there were a lot many uncertainties pertaining to the stability and political administration of various kingdoms across Europe. It won’t be an exaggeration to say that progress and prosperity came to a halt, if not a decline, during this period primarily due to rampant warfare, theological uncertainty and natural calamities.
The Great Famine of the early . . . Read MoreContinue Reading