The core focus of this article by John Dunn is on evaluating the success of nation-states. The author tries to assess the competence and adaptability offered by this framework of governance. The reader of the article will realize that the question mark placed at the end of the title is intended to be rhetorical, implying that the author believes that a crisis is confronting the notion of Nation-State. At the outset, Dunn makes the point that Nation-State is a political concept that gained acceptance not so much because it understood and anticipated the future of social organization but because it was a convenient term. Firstly, the concept of a Nation, which links a community on grounds of language, culture and ethnicity, is subjective and unscientific. Secondly, the primary purpose of a State is that of giving legality and legitimacy to a geo-political entity and hence is an artificial construct that is amenable to change. In other words, while contemporary global . . . Read More
The focus of this reading, written by Phillip Spencer and Howard Woolman, is the distinction between healthy and unhealthy varieties of nationalism that have developed over the course of the last few centuries. The very concept of ‘nation’ is a modern one, having found meaningful expression within the last two hundred years of world history. The founding principle of modern nationalism, the authors argue, has been its offer of equal political rights for all constituent groups and communities, irrespective of their social class, gender, economic background, etc. An empirical study of global political history over the recent past would suggest that nationalist movements broadly fall under two categories – civic and ethnic. The civic variety is perceived by commentators and scholars as a more progressive arrangement, whereas ethnic nationalism is seen to possess potential for misuse. The authors further point out that there is no straightforward method for classifying . . . Read More
Benedict Anderson’s essay titled Imagined Communities offers a historically informed analysis of nationalism. He asserts that the rise of nationalism was facilitated by the simultaneous decline of key cultural conceptions of great antiquity, which had erstwhile had a profound effect on humankind. The first of these changes had to do with the role of language in the evolution of human civilization. For much of history, written language was interlinked with power and privilege. The religious elite especially had employed the medium of written language to control the thoughts and actions of the masses. This was true across various religions. Second was the dismantling of the belief that the ruling elite earned their right by divine decree. The liberalization of language use had encouraged rational discourse among the common people and the movement toward democratic governance owes its advance to this. The third development which made it conducive for nationalism to . . . Read More
D. Ronen’s scholarly work The Quest for Self-Determination further explicates the nature of ethnic and national identities. In order to illustrate the complexities involved in ethnic and national identities, Ronen constructs a new conceptual framework which he calls “aggregations”. According to this theory, political discourses relating to human communities refer to the latter from one of two perspectives. The first is called “functional aggregates”, where defining aspects of identity such as language, religion, custom, skin color, etc “merely” serve the function of distinguishing one group from another. Generally, this way of denoting one’s identity is used as a matter of convenience and without any political slant. In ‘conscious aggregations’, on the other hand, the focus turns to away from the merely descriptive aspects of identity and plays up the differentiation quality among human communities. A good thumb rule for making a distinction between . . . Read More
The reading titled “Beyond Reason: The Nature of the Ethnonational Bond”, written by Walker Connor, will provide the contextual background for this think-piece exercise. The central argument of the author is that ethno-national bond is much stronger than patriotic bond. The basis for the formation of ethno-national bonds are never fully based on fact and evidence, but rather on some vague but convincing feeling of kinship within a group of people. In other words, the concept of ethno-nationality appeals to the notion of common genetic inheritance alongside other tangible aspects such as language, culture, religion, etc.
The author presents a wide range of examples to support the aforementioned thesis. By perusing relevant scholarship, the author does make a persuasive case for the superiority of ethno-national bonds over patriotic bonds. The notion of common ethnicity has played a significant role throughout the history of human civilization, whereas patriotism as is . . . Read More
Aggressive nationalisms always claim that they are regrettable but rational defensive reactions against perceived external threats; but this claim that aggression is defence, and that aggression is rational, is always (or often?) itself an irrational claim. Explain and comment upon this statement
Every ethnic group in the world had faced or initiated aggression against another throughout the human history. In the hundred years before the end of Cold War there have been radical transformations from monarchy to communism to democracy, from liberal capitalism to stringent economic protectionism, and vice versa across the globe. Not only have there been numerous instances of such changes but have also oscillated from one extreme to another. Amid all this churning, the one strong conception with which peoples in different parts of the world could identify with is their ‘nation’. The prevailing geo-political circumstances of the recent centuries have made these . . . Read More
The early years of a child’s life are very crucial for its proper development into an adult. There are many studies that support the view that the subsequent development of a child is determined by inherent infant personality as well as parental caretaking behaviour. Children who are subject to traumatic past experiences including physical and emotional abuse are more vulnerable to developing abnormal psychological dispositions later on in life. Parents and caretakers need keep in mind a few basic aspects of child rearing, which would go a long way in helping the child achieve timely developmental milestones. This essay looks at these essential needs of a baby, by way of gathering supportive evidence from the Ria and Flynn text book and from other relevant scholarly sources.
The baby needs lots of love and care:
One cannot overstate the fact that babies should be treated with utmost care. It is true . . . Read More
The American Flag and the Disneyland are two enduring symbols of American culture spanning generations. The American flag is strongly associated with the notions of patriotism and nationalism. The choice of design and color for the flag tells a story in itself. The blue and red colored flag with prominent stripes and stars represent the union of fifty states spanning the North American landscape. Beyond this basic symbolism, the flag has been associated with the nation’s progress in science and technology. For example, when Neil Armstrong and his colleagues in NASA successfully landed on the moon, it was the planting of the American Flag which served as the token purpose of the mission. At that time, the world was divided in two as a result of the Cold War. (Jolene & Couper, 2003, p.328)
The flag also represented the country in its military endeavors. Irrespective of political conditions and arenas of conflict, the flag has always been at the forefront of American . . . Read More
The severe decline in the state of world economy in the last two years is a culmination of several factors. But the bursting of the housing bubble in the United States alongside a precarious credit crunch situation have played major roles in precipitating the latest episode of economic recession in many countries. While the advanced nations in North America and Western Europe have borne the brunt of the recession, lesser developed economies and several emerging markets are simultaneously experiencing a slowdown in economic activity. Financial analysts and political commentators point out that the unregulated financial markets of Western democracies make such crises inevitable. The proponents of free market capitalism, on the other hand, do not concede this point. This essay will foray into the conditions that led to the present crisis in the housing market and try to assess the merits of remedial policy measures in this regard. The evaluation of the stimulus and bailout packages is . . . Read More
34 year old Mary White is in your care. She has limited mobility which means that she is unable to walk without assistance. Her chronic and life limiting condition has recently led to a problem with eating and drinking and now Mary is unable to feed herself (although she can take food from a spoon and drink from a beaker) and requires total assistance in this activity. Whilst her body has deteriorated and her speech is limited Mary White’s cognitive function is intact although she is tearful and depressed. It is meal time and you are preparing to attend to Mary White’s nutritional needs.
• Define the concept of dignity and discuss the importance of dignity in nursing care
• Discuss how the Code of Professional Conduct (NMC 2008) will guide your actions
• What are the issues that need to be considered when helping a patient to eat and drink
• What skills would you need to use to encourage Mary to eat . . . Read More